I want to talk to you today about the subject of Biblical Cosmology. Cosmology is from the Ancient Greek word kósmos which means "world" and "logia" ("study of"). Cosmology deals with the nature of our world. We just finished a study on the afterlife and admitted that there is a lot we don't know about the afterlife. But today I want to propose to you that there is much that we don't even know about the world we live in. Let me begin by saying that we have been lied to our whole lives. Lied to about everything. And one of the main lies is about the nature of our earth.
It seems to me that most people compliantly go along with whatever the mainstream tells them. That was demonstrated in the last couple of years with so many wearing masks and by many getting so-called vaccines simply because they were told to. They never questioned the narrative.
Then there are others, often called dissidents or troublemakers, who question things. I think that the majority of preterists fall into this camp. We hold to a doctrine vastly different from mainstream Churchianity. We questioned the narrative, and we ended up preterists. Well, if it is our nature to question, it's not just theology we should question. We question everything. And this morning I want to challenge you to question what you have taught about cosmology. I want us to look at what Scripture says about cosmology. I think you will see that is does not fit with what we are being told. Let's start at the beginning with the creation account.
In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. And God saw that the light was good. And God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day. And God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." Genesis 1:1-6 ESV
The word "expanse" here is the Hebrew word raqıya. BDB define it as: 1) extended surface (solid), expanse, firmament. 1b) firmament (of vault of heaven supporting waters above). 1b1) considered by Hebrews as solid and supporting 'waters' above.
The raqiya is solid? It holds back water? That's strange. Strong's Hebrew dictionary says of raqiya: "properly an expanse, that is, the firmament or (apparently) visible arch of the sky." That is very different from what BDB tells us. How does a visible arch of the sky hold back water?
Paul H. Seely, in a paper published in the Westminster Theological Journal entitled "The firmament and the water above," writes that the "STANDARD Hebrew lexica and a number of modern biblical scholars have defined the raqiac ("firmament") of Gen 1:6-8 as a solid dome over the earth." [1 E.g., commentaries on Genesis by S. P. Driver, H. Gunkel, J. Skinner, G. von Rad, C. Westermann.] (P.H. Seely, The firmament and the water above. Part I: The meaning of raqiya' in Gen. 1:6–8, Westminster Theological Journal 53:227–240, 1991).
Seely goes on to say that "The language of Genesis 1 suggests solidity … and no usage of raqiya' anywhere states or even implies that it was not a solid object … The historical-grammatical meaning of raqiya' in Gen. 1:6-8 is very clearly a literally solid firmament."
This noun raqıya is used 17 times in the Tanakh. We are going to look at them and see if we can figure out what this is talking about. The root of the noun raqıya is the verb raqa. Strongs says: "A primitive root; to pound the earth (as a sign of passion); by analogy to expand (by hammering); by implication to overlay (with thin sheets of metal): - beat, make broad, spread abroad (forth, over, out, into plates), stamp, stretch." The BDB definition is: 1) to beat, stamp, beat out, spread out, stretch.
We see this word raqa in Job.
Can you, like him, spread out the skies, hard as a cast metal mirror? Job 37:18 ESV
We just saw that raqiya had the idea of solid. Notice that the skies are "hard as a cast metal mirror" (that would be solid). The words "spread out" here is raqa. Elihu's question shows that the Hebrews considered the vault of heaven a solid, physical object. Notice how the Complete Jewish Bible translates verse 6 of Genesis 1.
God said, "Let there be a dome in the middle of the water; let it divide the water from the water." Genesis 1:6 CJB
I believe that the Bible teaches that the raqıya is a dome that is over a flat earth. Biblical cosmology is a flat earth with a dome over it. Harper's Bible Dictionary says, "The ancient Hebrews imagined the world as flat and round, covered by the great solid dome of the firmament, which was held up by mountain pillars, (Job 26:11; 37:18). Let's continue to look at the verses that talk about the raqıya.
And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so. And God called the expanse Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day. Genesis 1:7-8 ESV
So, the raqıya separates the waters above it from the waters below it and is called Heaven which is the Hebrew word shâmayim.
Praise him, you highest heavens, and you waters above the heavens! Psalms 148:4 ESV
So, it is not just Genesis that talks about the water above the heavens.
And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth." And it was so. And God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, Genesis 1:14-17 ESV
What do you see in this text that contradicts modern cosmology? What do they tell us the moon is? It's a rock that reflects the sun's light. That's not what this text says. Three times we are told that the lights, sun, moon and stars are in the raqıya, in the dome.
The heavens declare the glory of God, and the sky above proclaims his handiwork. Psalms 19:1 ESV
"The sky above proclaims his handiwork" the word "sky" here is a terrible translation. The Hebrew word here is raqiya. The raqiya, the solid dome over the earth, proclaims God's handiwork.
The heavens declare the glory of God, the dome of the sky speaks the work of his hands. Psalms 19:1 CJB
Believers, if the earth is flat and has a dome over it with the sun, moon and stars in it, wouldn't that dome proclaim Yahweh's handiwork? How can anyone realize that there is a dome over our flat earth and not understand that someone made it?
In Genesis 1 we saw that the stars are in the raqiya, (same word). I think that David is referring to the dome that contains the Zodiac. The word "zodiac" means "path" or "way." The Zodiac is the stages of the sun's path through the heavens in 12 months. I think that Psalm 19 is referring to what some have called "The Gospel in the Stars." God's glory is seen in the Zodiac because it tells the plan of redemption. I believe that the Zodiac, the raqıya, proclaims the Gospel.
Look at what Yahweh said to Abram.
And he brought him outside and said, "Look toward heaven, and number the stars, if you are able to number them." Then he said to him, "So shall your offspring be." Genesis 15:5 ESV
Yahweh said to Abram "Look toward heaven, and number the stars." The word "number" here is from the Hebrew word, "saphar." It can mean "intensively to recount, that is, celebrate: shew forth, speak, talk, tell." It comes from a root meaning: "a book" or "a scroll."
In the LXX the word "number" is arithmeo, meaning: "reckoned up." The meaning of arithmeo is much wider than "number" and can mean "enumerate" or "reckon."
So, what Yahweh said to Abram was not "number the stars," but to "recount or tell" the stars. There was a story in the stars, and Yahweh wanted Abram to take note of it. And there was something about this story in the stars that Abraham believed, and it was counted to him as righteousness.
Praise the LORD! Praise God in his sanctuary; praise him in his mighty heavens! Psalms 150:1 ESV
The word "mighty" here is raqıya.
In Ezekiel 1 the nature of a raqıya is described. This is the clearest description of a raqiya found in the Tanakh.
Over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of an expanse, shining like awe-inspiring crystal, spread out above their heads. And under the expanse their wings were stretched out straight, one toward another. And each creature had two wings covering its body. Ezekiel 1:22-23 ESV
And there came a voice from above the expanse over their heads. When they stood still, they let down their wings. And above the expanse over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness with a human appearance. Ezekiel 1:25-26 ESV
The throne mentioned was apparently sitting on this firmament and the firmament looked like crystal. It is apparent that the firmament is solid and is certainly not mere atmosphere or space or simply phenomenal language. "A voice from above the expanse"—who is above the raqiya? It is Yahweh.
It is he who sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers; who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them like a tent to dwell in; Isaiah 40:22 ESV
Then I looked, and behold, on the expanse that was over the heads of the cherubim there appeared above them something like a sapphire, in appearance like a throne. Ezekiel 10:1 ESV
So, Yahweh's throne sits above the raqiya, the dome.
and before the throne there was as it were a sea of glass, like crystal. And around the throne, on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind: Revelation 4:6 ESV
Remember this sea of glass like crystal. We'll come back to it.
And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever. Daniel 12:3 ESV
The word "sky" here is raqiya. I don't know about you, but I get the idea that the raqiya that the Bible talks about is a solid, crystal-like dome that covers our earth.
Let's look at what the writers of the Septuagint had to say. The LXX translates the word raqiya as stereōma. Thayer's Definition of stereoma is 1) that which has been made firm. 1a) the firmament, the arch of the sky, which in early times was thought to be solid. Brenton's Septuagint has.
And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water, and let it be a division between water and water, and it was so. Genesis 1:6 Brenton
This is from the Greek word stereōma. Paul uses it in Colossians 2.
For though I am absent in body, yet I am with you in spirit, rejoicing to see your good order and the firmness of your faith in Christ. Colossians 2:5 ESV
This is the only place that stereōma is used in the New Testament. Do you think of the sky as being firm? I don't, but the Bible seems to.
In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened. Genesis 7:11 ESV
Are "windows" here a metaphor? The Hebrew word for window is 'ărubbâh. Strongs' says that it means "a lattice; (by implication) a window, dove cot (because of the pigeon holes)." This word is used nine times in the Tanakh, sometimes metaphorically and sometimes literally. Remember that we have already seen that there are waters about the raqiya.
And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so. Genesis 1:7 ESV
We think of the sky or heavens as just air. How are their windows in the air? But you could have windows in the raqiya, a solid surface. The word for rain is a very different word than windows.
What I know for sure is that the Bible never says that the earth is a sphere. But it does say that it is a circle.
It is he who sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers; who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them like a tent to dwell in; Isaiah 40:22 ESV
The Hebrew word for circle here is chûg (circle, vault, horizon, circuit, or compass). BDB defines it as: 1) circle, circuit, compass. This word is only used two other places in the Tanakh.
Thick clouds veil him, so that he does not see, and he walks on the vault of heaven.' Job 22:14 ESV
So, again we see Yahweh above the dome.
When he established the heavens, I was there; when he drew a circle on the face of the deep, Proverbs 8:27 ESV
So, the earth is circular and not a spinning ball.
"Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them like a tent to dwell in"—the word for tent here is 'ôhel which means "a tent." This also sounds like a dome.
If the Bible wanted to say that the earth is a ball, it could have said that.
and whirl you around and around, and throw you like a ball into a wide land. There you shall die, and there shall be your glorious chariots, you shame of your master's house. Isaiah 22:18 ESV
The Hebrew word for "ball" here is dure. This word is used two other times in the Tanakh. It is not the word used in Isaiah 40:22. The Bible knows the difference between a circle and a ball.
before he had made the earth with its fields, or the first of the dust of the world. When he established the heavens, I was there; when he drew a circle on the face of the deep, when he made firm the skies above, when he established the fountains of the deep, when he assigned to the sea its limit, so that the waters might not transgress his command, when he marked out the foundations of the earth, Proverbs 8:26-29 ESV
The word "firm" here is 'âmats which, according to BDB, means 1) to be strong, alert, courageous, brave, stout, bold, solid, hard." Again, we see that the skies are firm. How did Yahweh limit the seas? Antarctic Ice wall?
Some want to argue that the Jews didn't believe in a flat earth with a dome. Well, hopefully you see that the Bible does teach that and I know one Jew who did believe that. His name was Josephus.
Flavius Josephus of the Antiquities of the Jews — Book I, chapter 1.
The constitution of the world, and the disposition of the elements.
After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts; and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a cristalline [firmament] round it; and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth; and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews… On the fourth day he adorned the heaven with the sun, the moon, and the other stars; and appointed them their motions and courses: that the vicissitudes of the seasons might be clearly signified.
So, Josephus understands a crystalline firmament around the earth. Wonder where he got that idea from?
I think that most of you are familiar with the Pseudepigrapha work of 1 Enoch. It is considered "Intertestamental Literature" or "Second Temple Literature." Jeff and I have talked about it many times. There are sections of 1 Enoch that describe the natural world. The narrator sometimes sounds like a second-century B.C. Carl Sagan explaining the heavens and earth to the admiring masses. The Enochian cosmology is flat-earth. The angel Uriel guided Enoch in most of his travels. They made several trips to the ends of the earth where the dome of heaven came down to the surface. For instance, Enoch says:
I went to the extreme ends of the earth and saw there huge beasts, each different from the other and different birds (also) differing from one another in appearance, beauty, and voice. And to the east of those beasts, I saw the ultimate ends of the earth which rests on the heaven. And the gates of heaven were open, and I saw how the stars of heaven come out… (1 Enoch 33:1-2).
The earth resting on the heaven makes no sense. R. H. Charles translation has "whereon the heaven rests." That makes sense. The dome rests on the earth.
Now, I think that most Bible scholars would agree with me that biblical cosmology is a flat earth with a dome over it. Michael Heiser believes that biblical cosmology is a flat earth with a dome over it, but he mocks those today that hold to a flat earth. Heiser says that "The honest truth is that we discard biblical cosmology as reality because of science, not because of genre… We can judge what the Bible says about earthly and off-planet cosmology because the tools of science can test those things."
Heiser is saying, "we can discard biblical cosmology because of science, we can judge the Bible based on the tools of science." Science cannot test cosmology. Modern cosmology comes from faulty conclusions based on observations.
John Walton and his son, J. Harvey Walton, published a book in 2019 entitled, Demons and Spirits in Biblical Theology: Reading the Biblical Text in Its Cultural and Literary Context. In the book, they state that "Since we can't accept what the Bible says about cosmology (solid sky, the dome over the earth and all that stuff)….Since we can't accept that as being real, we don't have to accept what the Bible says about demons or Satan as real either."
So, since Heiser says that "science" proves the Bible wrong on cosmology, what else is the Bible wrong about? To Walton it is wrong about demons. What else? Do you really want to go down that road? I believe that many of us have had our view of Scripture tainted by so called science, which in reality is pseudoscience.
When you hear the word science, what comes to your mind? We have heard that word a lot lately. We've been told to trust the science. We have been told that science proves that the earth is not flat, and if we don't agree with that nonsense, we are called science deniers. People use the word "science" to lend credence to what they're claiming because deep down, people equate "science" with truth.
What is science? Let me tell you that a month ago I could not have answered this question correctly. Dr. Jordan Grant has been patiently working with me to help me understand what science is. If you want to really dig into understanding what science is, see Jordan's conference message, "Science, Pseudoscience, and The Germ Theory of Disease."
What is science? Science is a method. And science as a method only deals with cause-and-effect relationships in the natural world. In natural science, hypothesis must be verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific theory. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
What most people call science is in fact pseudoscience, in other words, a collection of beliefs or practices mistakenly regarded as being based on the scientific method We can know if something is actually scientific or not by ascertaining whether it has gone through the Scientific Method. What scientific method has cosmology gone through? When Heiser says that "The honest truth is that we discard biblical cosmology as reality because of science," he is talking about pseudoscience, not science. Let me say it again: Science cannot test cosmology.
Dr. Jordan Grant, in an attempt to dumb down for me what science is so I could grasp it, writes this:
Natural science is a method to try and determine the CAUSE of an observed natural phenomenon. That's it. So, you must have an observed phenomenon - something 'happening'. Not just a static object, etc. and then you must postulate what may cause this, then seek to prove that by varying/manipulating the very thing you THINK is causing it. In other words, your potential cause must exist in reality and it must be able to be varied and manipulated. So, this immediately gets rid of a LOT of fields claiming 'science', since either A) they have no observed phenomenon, or B) they have no way of varying or manipulating any potential cause of something they DO observe (like things in the sky). 'Creation' science is an oxymoron because no one observed any natural phenomenon there, and even if someone was 'there', what are they going to vary/manipulate to prove the CAUSE of that creation? They surely aren't going to vary/manipulate the Creator. So, that's an easy way to really hone down on lots of claims of 'science.' Just ask 'what is the observed phenomenon?' If they can't get to that step, they're done. Some will claim artifacts and old books and history are 'observed phenomena', but that's nonsense. It has to be something 'occurring'. Not a static object. Now, after you ask that, if they can show you said observed phenomenon, we ask 'ok, so what is the HYPOTHESIS? Meaning, what is your presumed cause of the observed phenomenon? Is this thing real? Does the potential cause exist? If so, show it. Then, you move to experiment - where one varies the potential cause (independent variable), to try and prove the hypothesis. That's pretty much it. Very logical. We all think this way when we troubleshoot things - one must control all variables except ONE, to truly see if it, and it alone, may be the 'cause'. If there are multiple possible causes at once, then we leave the 'science' realm, and enter the correlation and statistics realm. (statistics isn't science, neither is math, for obvious reasons). Dr. Jordan Grant, MD.
Albert Einstein wrote that "Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. It is, strictly speaking, a real factor in scientific research." This is truly modern cosmology—it's all imagination.
Despite this, many continue to think that what scientists tell us is always true and reliable. Scientific analysis is assumed to be balanced and objective, and conclusions are presumed to be tested and proven. Indeed, many Christians appear to believe that what scientists say is on par to what Yahweh says!
Many think that what NASA says is science. NASA stands for Not A Space Agency. NASA claims that the earth is a globe that is spinning at 1,000 miles per hour at the equator while it is going 67,000 miles an hour in its revolution around the sun. Simultaneously, it is spiraling 500,000 miles per hour around the milky way, and the entire galaxy is traveling 670 million miles per hour through the universe. None of this has ever been proven and can't be proven. This is all fantasy. It is imagination. NASA's budget for 2023 is $25.4 billion. That is $69 million dollars a day. You can make up a lot of stuff (e.g., CGI photos and videos, space launches, etc.) for $69 million dollars per day. NASA is a money-laundering operation that tries to convince us that the earth is a globe.
Is there any evidence that the earth is spinning or moving about the sun? No, there is not! And there cannot be. Heliocentricity is a theory just like evolution. You may be thinking: "Everyone knows that the earth is moving." But, if you ask anyone for proof, the response you are likely to get is that "Science has proven it." Do you think that? Has science proven that the earth revolves around the sun? No, it has not and it cannot! Let me state it again: Science cannot test cosmology.
Physicist, Neville Thomas Jones, Ph.D., writes that "We feel no motion of the World on which we all live. Furthermore, no experiment in all physics has ever demonstrated that the World moves around the sun, or that it rotates on an axis."
In fact, all tests to prove that the earth rotates have proven just the opposite. The Michelson-Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the history of Physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University. Their experiment was designed to measure the change in the speed of light due to the assumed motion of the earth through space when measured in different directions on the earth's surface.
Their tests were a complete failure because they could find no evidence that the earth was moving at all. This sent the physicists into a tizzy. Something was radically wrong. Michelson tried experiment after experiment for the rest of his life and could find no evidence that the earth was moving. Others have also tried various experiments (e.g., The Sagnac Experiment  and "Airy's Failure" ) to show that the earth moves. They all failed.
All these tests are never taught at universities, so consequently, those supposed to know (including most Christian Creationists) are ignorant of this evidence for a flat earth. All experiments have proven that the earth is stationary.
Are you aware that there are simple tests that you can do to demonstrate that there is no curve to the earth? NASA claims that the earth is 25,000 miles around it's circumference. NASA tells us that the Earth's curvature is approximately 8 inches per mile squared. So, the drop of the curve would be 8 inches for 1 mile. For 2 miles it would be 8 inches times 2 squared which would be 4 X 8 which is 32 inches. For 3 miles it is 3 x 3 = 9 X 8 = 72 inches. So, three miles has a 6-foot drop.
From Silver Beach in Benton Harbor Michigan across lake Michigan to Chicago is about 57 miles. Let's do our curvature math—57 squared is 57 X 57 = 3,249 X 8 = 25,992 inches which is 2,166 feet. The tallest building in Chicago is Willis Tower which is 1,729 feet. How is it possible, then, that on a clear day the city of Chicago can be seen from Benton Harbor Michigan? The top of Willis Tower should be 437 feet below the horizon.
The Bible teaches a flat earth with a dome over it. Scholars recognize that but then say that science disproves the Bible. People, there is no science when it comes to cosmology. There is just speculation.
Let me share a few things with you that should make us scratch our heads and say "Hmm, interesting."
Admiral Byrd was one of the most highly decorated officers in the history of the United States Navy. In fact, he was the youngest Admiral in the history of the Navy. He was Indiana Jones on steroids. In 1928, he led an expedition to Antarctica that lasted 2 years. During that time, at the age of 41, he was promoted to Admiral. His second Antarctic expedition ran from 1933 to 1935 and his third from 1939 to 1940. In 1945, he went back to Antarctica. What's interesting is that this fourth trip to Antarctica wasn't an expedition; it was a military operation called Operation High Jump. Admiral Byrd commanded an entire aircraft carrier group that included 13 support ships. He led 4,700 men to Antarctica for reasons that are still shrouded in mystery. He went back to Antarctica for operation Deep Freeze 1955-1956. The mission was completed, and he supposedly returned home. The Admiral died in 1957. The missions to Antarctica just suddenly stopped and that was it. No other expeditions, military or otherwise, were conducted on the "continent" after that. But in 1959, twelve nations signed The Antarctic Treaty, which went into effect in 1961. Since then, another 41 nations have signed the treaty for a total of 53. This treaty bans any country from doing basically anything in Antarctica. Now the interior of Antarctica is off limits with no revisions until the year 2041. You can take tours of the outer islands, but there is a hidden line enforced by the military that you will not be able to cross because the interior is protected.
So, what happened? Are they hiding the flat earth and the ice wall surrounding the earth? Why ban everyone from going to a place that can reach100 degrees below zero, that has no vegetation and no animal life, and that is nothing but snow and ice? Why ban travel to there? Maybe (I'm speculating), just maybe, they found the edge of the earth. Maybe they saw the dome.
Why do I think that? Well, it's because of what happened soon after travel to the Antarctic was banned. Following the establishment of NASA in 1958, the US and Russia soon began launching high altitude nuclear bombs into the atmosphere. Why? Maybe—again I'm speculating—maybe Admiral Byrd had found the edge of the dome, and they were trying to find its height to see if they could penetrate it. These tests that the US did were named Operation Dominic and within that was operation Fishbowl (1962). Do you know what Dominic means? It means "of the Lord." Fishbowl was part of operation Dominic. High altitude rockets were sent high into space to test the "Fishbowl of the Lord." Nukes were shot at the raqiya in an attempt to create a way out. The missiles they were using were called Thor missiles. Thor is the god of thunder. He is depicted as a heroic figure similar to Hercules in Hellenistic mythology. Thor possesses his magical hammer which can produce the same result as the thunderbolts of Zeus.
Let's talk about the moon landing. Have you seen the so-called spaceship that they say went to the moon and back? It looks like a homeschool project. Sorry! That's rude to homeschoolers. It looks like a public-school project. Have you ever thought about how in 1969 we were able to talk to men on the moon from a land line. How? I have trouble with cell reception at my house because I live in a rural area. How did they send video from the moon which they claim is 222,000 miles from earth. Remember—this was in 1969.
In a 2004 documentary called "Astronauts Gone Wild," produced by Bart Winfield Sibrel, he asked each of the Astronauts to put their hand on the Bible and swear that they have been to the moon. Not one of them would do it. Why? Maybe because they know about the dome and the reality of God.
NASA teaches that space is a near perfect vacuum. A vacuum is a space with no matter in it. They say space is a vacuum because it has no air, no atmosphere. The word "vacuum" comes from the Latin word, vacuus, meaning "empty." So, what keeps earth's atmosphere and space's vacuum separate? Have you ever heard the saying "Nature abhors a vacuum"? Aristotle coined that phrase. The phrase expresses the idea that unfilled spaces go against the laws of nature and physics and that every space needs to be filled with something.
A simple example would be water in a glass. If I start with a full glass of water and then pour half of it out, as soon as I take the water out of the glass, it's immediately replaced by air. This demonstrates that nature prevents a vacuum (or nothingness) from happening in the glass.
What prevents Earth's atmosphere from dispersing into space? NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) says, "The answer in a word is…so the captcha was up high Gravity! Fortunately for us, Earth's gravity is strong enough to hold onto its atmosphere."
This is pure nonsense. "Gravity" is also question-begging and was stopped being thought of as a "force" 107 years ago with Einstein. Most people don't know this unless you took high-level physics in college. Nonetheless, it is true.
Gravity holds the earth's atmosphere in place to a certain degree, then you move into a vacuum. So, you have atmosphere and vacuum side by side. Really? Is there anything scientific about that? No. It violates every gas law we have—not to mention the Second Law of Thermodynamics—entropy.
Why push the globe so hard if the earth is really flat. Why lie to us? They are trying to hide God. If the earth is flat with a dome over it, that is the end of their Big Bang Theory. The dome gives glory to God.
The heavens declare the glory of God, and the dome above proclaims his handiwork. Psalms 19:1
My goal this morning is not to convince you that the earth is flat. The Bible alone should do that. My goal is to make you question what you have been taught about cosmology. My goal is to make you question everything. Trust your senses. They tell you that the earth is not moving, that water doesn't bend around a ball, and that there is no magical force separating atmosphere from vacuum.
I'll have a link put in this video on flat earth clues.