Pastor David B. Curtis


Media #885 MP3 Audio File Video File

The End of the World?

Hebrews 1:10-14

Delivered 11/26/17

Is the world going to someday come to an end? The great majority of people, both Christian and non-Christian, think it will. The end of the world is the theme of many books and movies and there are endless predictions as to when and how it will end. We are constantly told that the world will get worse until God destroys it. Is this idea that the world will someday end taught in the Bible? I'm sure that many would say that it is, but does the Bible really teach this? It seems to teach this in:

And, "You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end." Hebrews 1:10-12 ESV

This sounds like a prediction of the end of the world. Yes, it does, but is it? Let's take a deeper look at these verses and see if they really are predicating an end to the world.

Let's start by backing up in this chapter to get the context. In verses 4-14, the writer of Hebrews shows us that Yeshua the Christ, God's Son, is better than angels. He does this because angels were supremely exalted in the Jewish mind. The Mosaic law had been mediated by angels. The Jewish people revered and esteemed angels higher than any other created being. So, if the writer is to show that Yeshua is a better mediator with a better covenant, he must prove that Yeshua is better than angels.

The theme of this section is stated in verse 4:

having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs. Hebrews 1:4 ESV

Yeshua the Christ is superior to angels. Then in verses 5-13, he gives seven quotations from the Tanakh, which prove the supremacy of the Lord Yeshua. Verse 14 gives us the closing argument.

This passage clearly shows that Yeshua is the prophesied Messiah, God's kingly Son, and it states or implies the deity of the Messiah. Seven times he quotes the Tanakh to defend his position. For our study this morning I want to focus on the last two quotes.

And, "You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end." Hebrews 1:10-12 ESV

This quote is from:

Of old you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will change them like a robe, and they will pass away, but you are the same, and your years have no end. Psalms 102:25-27 ESV

This quotation speaks of the permanence and unchangeableness of the Messiah. Remember, this section is dealing with Yeshua's superiority over angels. How does this text show Christ's superiority over angels? What do angels have to do with the creation of the world? Nothing! The creation of the world is accredited to Yeshua; angels were simply part of what He created. So, why talk about creation here? The simple answer is: "He's NOT!" This text is not speaking of the creation or the end of the world. That is easy to say, but can I prove it? I believe I can.

And, "You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; Hebrews 1:10 ESV

This could be talking about the Genesis account. God did create the heavens and the earth.

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. Genesis 1:1 ESV

The Greek words used in Hebrews 1:10 don't really help us in understanding the meaning of "heaven and earth"—they are very general words. The word for "beginning" is arche, which simply means: "a commencement." It does not have to mean the beginning of time, but simply means the beginning of the thing under discussion, in this case the heaven and earth.

Now, you are probably thinking: "Well that was at the beginning of time." Maybe, maybe not! Could this possibly be referring to a different "heaven and earth" than the physical creation of the world? Is that even a possibility? I think it is a strong possibility; let's look at the use of "heaven and earth" in Scripture and see if they have some other meaning besides the literal physical heavens and earth.

If you want to know what a term means in the New Testament in relation to prophecy, you need to go back to the Tanakh and see what it meant there. If it was used a certain way in the Tanakh, wouldn't it make sense that the New Testament writers would use those expressions in the same way? We must get our understanding of "heaven and earth" from the Tanakh.

Then Moses spoke the words of this song until they were finished, in the ears of all the assembly of Israel: Deuteronomy 31:30 ESV

So Yahweh is speaking to Israel through Moses.

"Give ear, O heavens, and I will speak, and let the earth hear the words of my mouth. Deuteronomy 32:1 ESV

So here He calls Israel, "O heavens," and, "earth." He is clearly not speaking to the physical heavens and earth, but to the people Israel.

Hebrews did not always mean "the physical universe" when they spoke of heaven and earth together. In Jewish literature, the Temple was a portal connecting heaven and earth. They called it the "navel of the earth" and the "gateway to heaven" (Jub 8:19; 1 Enoch 26:1).

In biblical apocalyptic language, "heavens" can refer to governments and rulers, and "earth" can refer to the nation of people. This can be seen in the book of Isaiah:

The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth; for the LORD has spoken: "Children have I reared and brought up, but they have rebelled against me. Isaiah 1:1-2 ESV

Here again, Yahweh is speaking to Judah and Jerusalem and He calls them, "O heavens" and "O earth."

Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom! Give ear to the teaching of our God, you people of Gomorrah! Isaiah 1:10 ESV

God is still talking to Israel and He calls them, "Sodom and Gomorrah." The literal Sodom and Gomorrah had been destroyed for some time. Here we see Yahweh speaking to the "rulers" and the "people", and in verse 2 He uses "heavens" for rulers and "earth" for the people. So the terms "heaven and earth" can be used to speak of rulers and people of a nation. Please, store that in your memory banks! It is possible that the expression "heaven and earth" has or may have a meaning other than the literal physical heaven and earth.

For example, the first century Jews referred to the Temple System as "heaven and earth." According to Josephus, two parts of the tabernacle were "approachable and open to all," but one was not. He explains that in so doing Moses "signifies the earth and the sea, since these two are accessible to all; but the third portion he reserved for God alone because heaven is inaccessible to men" [Ant. 3:181, cf. 3:123].

John Lightfoot (1602-1675), the highly respected author of the four volume series, A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica, observed how heaven and earth is used in the New Testament: "the passing away of heaven and earth is the destruction of Jerusalem and the whole Jewish state…as if the whole frame of this world were to be dissolved."

So, yes, it is possible that the expression "heaven and earth" has or may have a meaning other than the literal physical heaven and earth. To further clarify this look with me at:

"I, I am he who comforts you; who are you that you are afraid of man who dies, of the son of man who is made like grass, and have forgotten the LORD, your Maker, who stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth, and you fear continually all the day because of the wrath of the oppressor, when he sets himself to destroy? And where is the wrath of the oppressor? Isaiah 51:12-13 ESV

God is talking to Israel here. Is He talking to them about the creation of the physical world? Verse 13 sounds like the creation of the physical world. But notice how Youngs Literal Translation puts verse 13:

And thou dost forget Jehovah thy maker, Who is stretching out the heavens, and founding earth, And thou dost fear continually all the day, Because of the fury of the oppressor, As he hath prepared to destroy. And where is the fury of the oppressor? Isaiah 51:13 YLT

Notice that it is in the present tense. God is saying to Israel that He "is" stretching out the heavens and founding the earth. Was God still creating the physical creation? I don't think so!

He who is bowed down shall speedily be released; he shall not die and go down to the pit, neither shall his bread be lacking. I am the LORD your God, who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar— the LORD of hosts is his name. And I have put my words in your mouth and covered you in the shadow of my hand, establishing the heavens and laying the foundations of the earth, and saying to Zion, 'You are my people.'" Isaiah 51:14-16 ESV

Please notice carefully that the time of planting the heavens and laying the foundation of the earth that is referred to here, was performed by God when He divided the sea (ver. 15 KJV), and gave the law (put my words in your mouth, verse 16), and said to Zion, "Thou art my people." What do those terms speak of? God did this when He took the children of Israel out of Egypt, and formed them in the wilderness into a covenant nation. He planted the heavens and laid the foundation of the earth; that is, brought forth order, and government.

So, the term "heaven and earth" is used in Scripture for something other than the physical creation, it is used to speak of the nation Israel.

Do you remember what we said the theme of the book of Hebrews was? The theme of Hebrews is: "The superiority of the New Covenant over the Old covenant." This letter is written to encourage those suffering Christians to persevere in spite of the tribulation they were experiencing. First, the writer stressed that Yeshua is better in every way compared to the Old Covenant system. Second, the New Covenant is better in every way compared to the Old Covenant. And third, the faith of the New Covenant is better in every way compared to the faith of the Old Covenant. He seriously tried to demonstrate to these struggling Christians that the new age that was dawning would bring to completion the new and much better covenant.

Look back with me at verse 2:

but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. Hebrews 1:2 ESV

When the writer of Hebrews says, "through whom also He created the world," he is not talking about the creation of the universe. The word "worlds" is not kosmos, but aion, which means: "the ages." His discussion here involves the Old and New Covenant ages. It is these two ages that are contrasted throughout this book. He consistently shows how the New Covenant is superior to the Old.

With all this is mind, the writer of Hebrews in this section (Hebrews 1:10-12) is showing how the Old Covenant, which was mediated by angels, is temporary, but the New Covenant, which Christ brings, is permanent. Thus showing Christ's superiority over the angels. Let's move on to the next couple of verses and see if we can make this even clearer.

they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end." Hebrews 1:11-12 ESV

He is saying that "heaven and earth" will perish, but Christ will remain. Now, does He mean that the physical "heaven and earth" will perish? Peter talked about this same idea in:

But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed. Since all these things are thus to be dissolved, what sort of people ought you to be in lives of holiness and godliness, waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be set on fire and dissolved, and the heavenly bodies will melt as they burn! 2 Peter 3:10-12 ESV

Is Peter talking about a time to come when the earth will be destroyed by fire? A time when the whole earth will explode and life, as we now know it, will end? It sure looks like that to us, doesn't it?

Is the world going to someday come to an end? The great majority of people, both Christian and non-Christian, think it will. But did you know that there are many verses in the Bible that seem to indicate that the world will never end?

And when the LORD smelled the pleasing aroma, the LORD said in his heart, "I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the intention of man's heart is evil from his youth. Neither will I ever again strike down every living creature as I have done. While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease." Genesis 8:21-22 ESV

Now, folks will say that the Lord destroyed the earth by water one time and He'll destroy it by fire the next time. Is God's promise here to just change His method of destroying everything? Is there comfort in being destroyed by fire instead of water? Or is He promising not to destroy the earth again?

Praise him, you highest heavens, and you waters above the heavens! Let them praise the name of the LORD! For he commanded and they were created. And he established them forever and ever; he gave a decree, and it shall not pass away. Psalms 148:4-6 ESV

What decree did God make concerning the establishment of the heaven and the earth that will never pass away? Could it be Genesis 8:21? God said that He would never again destroy every living thing. God can be trusted; He keeps His word.

He built his sanctuary like the high heavens, like the earth, which he has founded forever. Psalms 78:69 ESV

If God has established the earth forever, how could it end?

Your faithfulness endures to all generations; you have established the earth, and it stands fast. Psalms 119:90 ESV
A generation goes, and a generation comes, but the earth remains forever. Ecclesiastes 1:4 ESV

It sounds like these verses teach that the earth will last forever. But what about those verses that we are looking at in Hebrews that say that heaven and earth will perish?

What is the primary rule of hermeneutics? It is the Analogy of Faith. This principle teaches that Scripture is to interpret Scripture. No Scripture can be taken in such a way as to render it in conflict with what is clearly taught elsewhere in Scripture. So the Bible can't teach that the world is going to end and it is not going to end. And it doesn't. The Bible talks about the end of the age but never the end of the world. The verses that speak about the destruction of "heaven and earth" are speaking not about the end of the world, but about the end of Judaism; the end of the Old Covenant.

Let's see if Scripture bears this out. Remember we said, "In biblical apocalyptic language, 'heavens' refers to governments and rulers, and 'earth' refers to the nation of people."

This idea is seen more clearly as we look at other passages where mention is made of the destruction of a state and government using language which seems to set forth "the end of the world" as the collapse of heaven and earth.

The oracle concerning Babylon which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw. Isaiah 13:1 ESV

In this chapter, God is talking about the judgment that is to fall upon Babylon. The word "oracle" is the Hebrew word massa': "an utterance, chiefly a doom." This introduction sets the stage for the subject matter in this chapter, and if we forget this, our interpretations of Isaiah 13 can go just about anywhere our imagination wants to go. This is not an oracle against the universe or world but against the nation of Babylon.

Wail, for the day of the LORD is near; as destruction from the Almighty it will come! Isaiah 13:6 ESV
Behold, the day of the LORD comes, cruel, with wrath and fierce anger, to make the land a desolation and to destroy its sinners from it. For the stars of the heavens and their constellations will not give their light; the sun will be dark at its rising, and the moon will not shed its light. I will punish the world for its evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; I will put an end to the pomp of the arrogant, and lay low the pompous pride of the ruthless. I will make people more rare than fine gold, and mankind than the gold of Ophir. Therefore I will make the heavens tremble, and the earth will be shaken out of its place, at the wrath of the LORD of hosts in the day of his fierce anger. Isaiah 13:9-13 ESV

Now remember he is speaking about the destruction of Babylon, but it sounds like world wide destruction. The terminology of a context cannot be expanded beyond the scope of the subject under discussion. The spectrum of language surely cannot go outside the land of Babylon. If you were a Babylonian and Babylon was destroyed, would it seem like the world was destroyed? Let me put it this way: if America were destroyed, would it seem to you like the world ended? Yes! Your world would have ended.

Behold, I am stirring up the Medes against them, who have no regard for silver and do not delight in gold. Isaiah 13:17 ESV

This is a historical event that took place in 539 BC. When the Medes destroyed Babylon, the Babylonian world came to an end. This destruction is said, in verse 6, to be from the Almighty, and the Medes constitute the means that God uses to accomplish this task. The physical heaven and earth were still in tact, but for Babylon, they had collapsed. This is apocalyptic language. This is the way the Bible discusses the fall of a nation. This is obviously figurative language.

In Isaiah 24-27, we see the invasion of Israel by Nebuchadnezzar. He carries them away to captivity. Notice the language that he uses:

The earth shall be utterly empty and utterly plundered; for the LORD has spoken this word. The earth mourns and withers; the world languishes and withers; the highest people of the earth languish. The earth lies defiled under its inhabitants; for they have transgressed the laws, violated the statutes, broken the everlasting covenant. Therefore a curse devours the earth, and its inhabitants suffer for their guilt; therefore the inhabitants of the earth are scorched, and few men are left. Isaiah 24:3-6 ESV
The earth is utterly broken, the earth is split apart, the earth is violently shaken. The earth staggers like a drunken man; it sways like a hut; its transgression lies heavy upon it, and it falls, and will not rise again. Isaiah 24:19-20 ESV

What I want you to see in these verses is how God refers to Israel as the earth. He says, "The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is split apart, the earth is violently shaken. The earth staggers like a drunken man." Notice how many times God referred to Israel as the "earth." This is apocalyptic language speaking of the destruction of the people of Israel.

In Isaiah 34, we have a description of the fall of Edom. Notice the language that is used:

All the host of heaven shall rot away, and the skies roll up like a scroll. All their host shall fall, as leaves fall from the vine, like leaves falling from the fig tree. For my sword has drunk its fill in the heavens; behold, it descends for judgment upon Edom, upon the people I have devoted to destruction. Isaiah 34:4-5 ESV

Here we have a description of the fall of Edom; notice the language that is used. This is biblical language to describe the fall of a nation. It should be clear that it is not to be taken literally. God says that, "My sword has drunk its fill in the heavens," then explains what He means by saying "It descends in judgment upon Edom." The NIV puts it this way, "My sword has drunk its fill in the heavens; see, it descends in judgment on Edom, the people I have totally destroyed." So, God speaks of His sword being bathed in heaven, meaning the nation Edom, not the literal heaven. Edom shall be rolled up like a scroll.

Let's look at one other Old Testament use of this language:

An oracle concerning Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum of Elkosh. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God; the LORD is avenging and wrathful; the LORD takes vengeance on his adversaries and keeps wrath for his enemies. The LORD is slow to anger and great in power, and the LORD will by no means clear the guilty. His way is in whirlwind and storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet. He rebukes the sea and makes it dry; he dries up all the rivers; Bashan and Carmel wither; the bloom of Lebanon withers. The mountains quake before him; the hills melt; the earth heaves before him, the world and all who dwell in it. Nahum 1:1-5 ESV

The subject of this judgment is Nineveh, not the physical world. This is the way God describes the fall of a nation. If this language describes the judgment of God on nations, why, when we come to the New Testament, do we make it be the destruction of the whole earth? It is only because we do not understand how the Bible uses this apocalyptic language. If the destruction of heaven and earth were to be taken literally in all of the passages in the Tanakh, it would mean that heaven and earth were destroyed a bunch of times. This language is clearly not literal, but figurative and apocalyptic.

John Brown (1853) said:

'Heaven and earth passing,' understood literally, is the dissolution of the present system of the universe, and the period when that is to take place, is called the 'end of the world.' But a person at all familiar with the phraseology of the Old Testament Scriptures, knows that the dissolution of the Mosaic economy, and the establishment of the Christian, is often spoken of as the removing of the old earth and heavens, and the creation of a new earth and new heavens (vol. 1, p. 170)

It appears, then, that Scripture being the best interpreter of Scripture, we have in the Old Testament a key to the interpretation of the prophecies in the New. The same symbolism is found in both, and the imagery of Isaiah, Ezekiel, and the other prophets helps us to understand the imagery of St. Matthew, St. Peter, and St. John. As the dissolution of the material world is not necessary to the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy, neither is it necessary to the accomplishment of the predictions of the New Testament. (vol. i. p.200).

Now, let's go back to our text in Hebrews, which is a word for word quotation from Psalm 102. If all we had was the prophecy of David in Psalms 102, we might think that this is referring to the physical earth. But, the New Testament gives us insight and illumination to the Tanakh.

And, "You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end." Hebrews 1:10-12 ESV

The writer of Hebrews tells us that the fulfillment of these verses is related to the establishment of the eternal Kingdom of Christ.

But of the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions." Hebrews 1:8-9 ESV

The heavens and the earth (Old Covenant Israel) would perish, but Christ and His throne would remain for ever and ever. The superiority of Christ over angels is shown in that He created the world wherein they were ministering spirits.

Of the angels he says, "He makes his angels winds, and his ministers a flame of fire." Hebrews 1:7 ESV
Therefore we must pay much closer attention to what we have heard, lest we drift away from it. For since the message declared by angels proved to be reliable, and every transgression or disobedience received a just retribution, how shall we escape if we neglect such a great salvation? It was declared at first by the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard, while God also bore witness by signs and wonders and various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will. For it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking. Hebrews 2:1-5 ESV

Verse 2 speaks of the Sinaic Covenant, which was given by angels, and compares it to the New covenant salvation that Christ brings. In verse 5, he says, "For it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking." The world to come would not be in subjection to angels, in contrast to the world that then was, which would pass away.

How is the world or the heavens and earth of old going to perish? David said in Psalm 102:26, they shall, "they will all wear out like a garment," and then they would be "changed." Is it just a coincidence that the Bible speaks of the passing away of the old covenant using the same language?

In speaking of a new covenant, he makes the first one obsolete. And what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away. Hebrews 8:13 ESV

The same Greek word palaioo, which means: "to make worn out, or declare obsolete" is used in Hebrews 1:11, "will become old" of the heavens and earth and 8:13, "becoming obsolete" of the Old Covenant. The writer here says that the Old Covenant is about to pass away. Not many years later, it did in the destruction of Jerusalem.

This prophecy was fulfilled when the New Covenant replaced the Old Covenant. At that time the former heaven and the former earth was replaced by a New Temple and a New Earth. The former heaven is synonymous with the Jewish Temple, and the former earth is reference to the physical place where the Temple sat, which is Jerusalem. These Old Covenant types and shadows were replaced by a New Temple, which is the place where God dwells, that is, the Church, the "body of Christ," which is synonymous with the "New Jerusalem."

The writer of Hebrews is not talking in this text about the end of the world, but of the end of Old Covenant Israel. And since he is quoting Psalm 102, that is exactly what David was talking about. The Old Covenant that was mediated by angels was about to end, but Christ's Kingdom will never end, thus Christ is superior to angels.

Let's look at these last two verses which strengthen our case:

And to which of the angels has he ever said, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet"? Hebrews 1:13 ESV

This quote is from Psalm 110 which is one of the most frequently referred to promises from the Tanakh to appear in the New Testament. This highlights the final victory of the Son over His enemies.

The phrase "enemies a footstool" describes an oriental military practice; a victorious king would place his feet on the neck of a defeated king. Who are these enemies that Christ has made his footstool? It was Old Covenant Judaism that was Christ's enemy. Christ calls Judaism the synagogue of Satan.

Behold, I will make those of the synagogue of Satan who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie—behold, I will make them come and bow down before your feet, and they will learn that I have loved you. Revelation 3:9 ESV

The Jews were the ones who persecuted and tried to wipe out Christianity. They were Christ's enemies. The last enemy to be destroyed is death, and the Old Covenant was a ministry of death. When the Old Covenant was abolished, so was death. Because the Old Covenant was associated with angels, it's destruction by Christ meant that He was superior to angels.

The writer of Hebrews concludes this section on Christ's superiority over angels by saying:

Are they not all ministering spirits sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation? Hebrews 1:14 ESV

This shows the utter subordinated relationship in which angels stand to the redeemer. He is Sovereign, they are servants. This is used to clench his argument.

In this verse, we have another time indicator showing that the Old Covenant was about to end, and the New Covenant was about to be consummated.

are they not all spirits of service—for ministration being sent forth because of those about to inherit salvation? Hebrews 1:14 YLT

The words "who are to" are from the Greek word mellontas, a common idiom of mello. The Greek verb "mello" means: in the infinitive, "to be about to" - see Thayer, Arndt & Gingrich, New Englishman's Greek Concordance.

 If they were to inherit salvation soon from the time of the Hebrews' writing, this implies they had not inherited salvation prior to this time. Thus, sometime in the not-too-distant future from AD 65 salvation was going to be inherited.

In Mark 10:30, Yeshua promised, "in the age to come eternal life." This would mean that eternal life was one of the blessings that would be a part of the New Covenant age following the vanishing of the first "age" or covenant. We can see here that salvation is tied directly to eschatology. We also see this in:

so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him. Hebrews 9:28 ESV

In both of these verses, we see that salvation is directly tied to the Second Coming of Christ. The ones about to inherit salvation then, at the time of the writing of Hebrews, would be inheriting that salvation at the time of Christ's Second Advent at the fall of Jerusalem. Salvation was not a completed event in the lives of the first century believers, it was their hope, they looked forward to its soon arrival. Peter also states that their salvation was not yet complete:

who by God's power are being guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1 Peter 1:5 ESV

The transition saints had in pledge what we now have. They had a guarantee of what was to come. We have it all.

In the Old Covenant, which was mediated by angels, they had the hope of eternal life/salvation, but in the New Covenant age, which was consummated in AD 70, we have eternal life/salvation NOW! Christ is far superior to angels!

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